St Mary le Bow in London

History of The East London Cockney

Although some foreigners and people living in other places in the UK, assume that all Londoners are cockneys, this isn’t technically 100% true.

The East London Cockney.

You can technically only be a Cockney if you were born in the East End of the city. To be really specific, you must have been born within the sound of Bow bells. These are the bells of St Mary-le-Bow church in Cheapside. A survey of the bells and how far their ringing might have carried was done in 2000.

This actually gives more scope to be a Cockney than you might think, as they would have been heard six miles to the east, four miles to the west, five miles to the north and three miles to the south. Dick Whittington, according to legend, heard the bells in Highgate in North London before he turned back and came home.

This disputes the fact that Cockneys are all from the East End but few people born outside the area will take their claim to fame.

What does it take to be a Cockney?

It is thought that the word Cockney originates from the Norman word for a sugar cake, cocaigne. The Normans called London the ‘Land of Sugar Cake’ and the name seems to have stuck with some variations over the years. In the 1360s the writer William Langland also used the term ‘cockeney’ to mean cock’s egg.

This phrase was used to describe lazy city dwellers who didn’t have to work hard for a living according to their rural counterparts. Neither explanation may make a whole lot of sense but both tell us that Cockneys have been around for a fair amount of time!

If you ask anyone outside of the East End what defines a Cockney, most will tell you about Cockney Rhyming slang.

This is a language specific to the East End that is actually used by many other regions of the country now. It isn’t clear when rhyming slang started and why and there are various explanations on where it could have come from.

St Mary le Bow in London

Some, for example, think it began in the 1840s and that it was used by costermongers and salesmen as a form of ‘patter’. Others think it was a secret language used by criminals and people skating close to the edge of the law to bamboozle police and outsiders. In either case, if you don’t understand the slang, it can be like listening to a foreign language, but it is fun to try and decipher.

The premise of Cockney rhyming slang is that it switches a word or phrase with another that rhymes with the original. So, for example, stairs become apple and pears, phone becomes dog and bone, wife becomes trouble and strife and hair becomes Barnet fair. Some of the slang dates back for centuries but the language is still evolving.

An Evolving Cockney Language

In recent years, additions to slang have included Tony Blairs for flares, Ruby Murray for curry and Britney Spears for beers. You can hear these phrases all over the country, though they will, ideally, not be delivered in a Mockney accent. Mockney accents are usually adopted by people who want to look working class when they are actually quite posh.

It’s best not to do Mockney when you meet a Cockney because they will laugh and they may get quite irritable if they think you are showing off.

Similarly, don’t take Cockney lessons from Dick van Dyke in Mary Poppins. That just didn’t work on any level at all and no self-respecting Cockney will ever talk like that. Michael Caine did a much better job than Dick in the film Alfie. Technically, he isn’t a Cockney either as he was born in South London but I guess that is close enough.

East London Pearly Kings and Queens

Many people think that Pearly Kings and Queens are all East Enders, but this isn’t the case. Many of them are, but this tradition covers all Londoners. Pearly Kings and Queens, or Pearlies, are a working-class London tradition – they wear clothes that are intricately decorated with pearl buttons and do a lot of good work for charity.

They are so well known in London that a group of them even made an appearance in the Opening Ceremony of the 2012 Olympics. Of course, not every East Ender can be a Pearly King or Queen – these are special jobs and there are local groups and dynasties operating all over the city.

So, given the original reach of the sound of Bow Bells, you don’t actually need to be born in the East End to qualify as being a Cockney – any working class Londoner near the area may consider themselves one. But, to get a real feel for the Cockney way of life, visit the East End and look for local market traders, shop owners and cabbies. If you’re really lucky, they’ll treat you to some rhyming slang!

56 thoughts on “History of The East London Cockney”

  1. I was born 2 miles west of St Mary le Bow in Dec 61. Imagine my disappointment when I discovered I am not a Cockney as the bells were not replaced later that month. 😣😣😣

    1. Being born in the Mile End Rd.
      Yes you are a Cockney. No contest.
      You need however to work on your back slang , which is not rhyming slang.
      Congrats on your 50 + years of marriage, we had our 55 th last December. And togetherness outways all languages.


      1. My dad’s people were from Mile End… they came there from Yorkshire in 1820. The family had 22 children quite a number of which survived. 14 to be exact. I grew up in Middlesex but like so many others in my area there were accents from all parts of London and all parts of Britain in those days. Not too many people from other countries though.

  2. Terry Nesbitt Foster

    I was born in Wandsworth in 1931, but my family had a business in Gutter Lane and I spent a lot of time growing up in Cockneydom until the bombs started. I now live in Australia and before I left used to use a pub “The Watling” in Watling Street that was built by Sir Christopher Wren as a coffee house for the workers building St Paul’s. (sister East Minster to St Peter’s in Westminster) Of course learned the rhyming slang but only use bits of it through habit: “minces, mutton, Barnet (my South African wife always uses this), Germans and rory.”

    1. Terry Nesbitt Foster

      Sorry, moderation? I left the UK in 1980. St Paul’s was built as a Minster, St Peter’s was built as a Minster and if your readers know the lingo shouldn’t need translation but this was current when I lived in London: Mince pies -eyes, Mutt and Jeff – deaf, Barnet Fair – hair, German bands – hands,
      Rory O’More – door.

      1. Terry,
        A pub called “Ye Olde Watling” is listed on the internet, could be the same pub you remember.
        I have had a natter with the trouble and strife, she say “ Go up the apples,and look at all those skyscrapers you’ve got, in the cupboard., you have the names of all the rubber dubs you’ve been too, whenyou used to come Brahms and Litz.
        Stay well.
        PS. If I came home Brahmased I hardly think we would have celebrated 55 years of marriage, last

      2. All.
        Apart from the rhyming slang there is Cockney back slang, is there anybody out there who can speak this?
        A clue.
        Here is a clue. My mates would call me tansa . It sends the spell check barmy or armyba

          1. Ona amIa otna.
            Were are you from Terry?
            We will have to watch what we are saying, otherwise the scousers will join in with their waygo pago lingo.
            And don’t get the Geordies at it.

        1. My husband and his family spoke backslang fluently, As did my mum. It was usually used by tradesmen, shopkeepers etc who didn’t want their customers to know what they were talking about (like upping the price) As a born and bred cockney- born in the Mile End road you’d have thought that id’ve been taught it but I wasn’t.After over 50 years of marriage I have at last got the hang of it. I kniht.

        2. G Day from Melbourne Aus, my grandfather was a Cockney, born in the Minories back in 1904. i am 60 now, but remember as a little bloke, my G/Dad would speak this crazy Lingo with some of his BRS mates, we had no idea what he was on about… great days and fond memories


  3. i was born on highgate hill in the whittington hospital in 1949, and i came out talking like a cockney, weird, cos my older sister talks ‘posh’
    across the road from the hospital is a cat surrounded by a metal rail, actually saw it mentioned recently, although for so many people history, especially of london and its real people and their culture, is not important.
    my dad was born in hoxton above a shop and my mum was born in bow in a house.

    to me a cockney is part of a culture – a word not recognised for its importance these days.
    you know, the attitudes and behaviour that were taught to me by my kith and kin – based on what they were taught by their kith and kin – and so on – that’s culture
    experience of life and other people over time is what gives one their culture – but also most importantly their environment, both built and otherwise – the green stuff and other associated creatures.
    country people and town/city people are different with their understanding, although human decency runs through all cultures

    to me rhyming slang was a game of words that people used to entertain themselves – not just about talking in a way that rich and posh people couldn’t understand, and as a child i was constantly told – use your loaf.
    i actually thought loaf was another word for head and i would find it in the dictionary

    let’s not forget that living in cities was and still is a grim place to live and love for poor working people – with little natural romance – the feel of the wind and the sun on the face – the sounds of life and nature – read the great animal orchestra by bernie kraus if you think that built up areas of people with all their damn noise is important or healthy.

    cities – as old cockneys knew – were run by people who thought that they knew better than the rest of us – the aristocrats, the church establishment, the traders of goods made by others!!!

    as a child it was quite obvious to me in london that, although the government made laws, on the ground, ordinary people did what they thought was sensible in that situation (using their culture) and so often did exactly the opposite of what the law said

    this was broken in the 60’s by so-called political people like blair who came to a cockney area and put the indigenous londoner behind the new british immigrants using a term like ‘positive discrimination – even though the indigenous londoner was poor having been targeted by hitlers bombers (he thought he could destroy english people’s moral by bombing the poor areas in all the island’s big cities!!!
    after the war people had little and so when the wicked witch of the west came along with her ‘there are no such thing as communities, we are all individuals’ she made people think they were wealthy by owning their own homes!! and destroying the financial system into fairyland

    i live in essex and the only thing that saves it for me is the fact that there are many creatures (i live on a third of an acre) but both country people and london descent people seem to have lost their way and are mostly money orientated

    cockney people were wonderful when i was small – they were a community and as they saw so many people in their lifetimes they could suss you out with one look in your eyes (seat of the soul)- trustworthy or a con man – and treated you accordingly
    that’s why the kray twins got spat out by the public – they started killing people in public and the public weren’t happy
    shame the present londoners don’t behave that way now!!! but it seems to have become a ‘let’s have a party’ city. london was quiet by nine pm when i was a kid
    don’t think that young people can blame us anymore for the destruction of our world – they are doing a good job all on their own within their own lifetimes!
    all ordinary cultures within this great island were amazingly sensible in the way they treated life and individual people
    there are still some places i have found in my life where people are sound humans – but i shan’t say where cos people will move there and destroy it.
    shame all the cockneys are no longer connected – although i usually know when i meet one – not just because of their language but by their attitude
    long live human decency!!

    1. “Use your loaf”.
      Loaf is short for loaf of bread. Loaf of bread rhymes with head.
      Hence “ Use your loaf “ Use your head,
      I,m up the apples now for a kip

    2. How well put..Yes, they try so very hard to put cockneys off of the map…Constantly belittling them and portraying them in masses as crafty conniving fools……..Depicting them on TV as grabbing thick parasites…..I’m a smart kind reserved Cockney.Was raised with many morals and values ..Empathy was given and installed by my parents. Whom were born,as was I..In the eastend ofLondon. …!

    3. Hello Penny. You’ve just about nailed it here. Decent and in some cases descent. I play with words, accents, keyboards, and reeds and learn other languages easily and fast.

      I was brought up in Peckham, not far from the Old Kent Road. Google maps 2.6 miles. I am almost 80 and remember as it was with fond feelings for the closeness and kindness of past generations. Wealth had not morphed into stealth.

      South “Sarf” in cockney, London was distinguishable from the East End variety by “tonal” inflection. The area was originally meadowland feeding the City, to the “Norf” of the “Riva”. And a stones “Frow” from the Sit-i

      There was a kind of inverted snobbery, but you can see from Michael Caine he is from the “Sarf and locals like me can catch the subtleties. The speed of delivery was a good clue to birthright. And gruffness or softness of tone.

      Rudeness, and Frankness would describe the lurking sarcastic humour, behind for example, Chas and Dave’s Gertcha Cowson Gertcha,

      We woz sometimes seen as posh geezers. And we were responsible for rhetorical phrases such as “ennit?” and dunnit? But there was nowhere to hide behind RP received pronunciation. Cockneys were the salt of the earth and simple truth was paramount to social cohesion.

      Go awry and you will soon find yerself disenfranchised with a direct “Aint yer go- no ‘ome?

      Oh yes, my name is Derek. Mother vaguely thought it was a bit posh. But soon it hurt her ears when everyone began calling me De-w (Del).

      All the best


      1. Hi Del

        Chas and Dave were both born in Middlesex, so “Mockney” is the correct term to use to describe their music.

        Best wishes


  4. War damage payments.
    Money paid by Germany for all the damage they caused. This I believe was for property.
    We the suffering population got SFA.

  5. Oh !you wonderful cockneys, actual, near or could be.
    St. Mary – le Bow bells is correct.
    The bells may have been silent ( they were not when I was born in 1938) But it is not just the bells, it is a culture a way of recognising a fellow Londoner.
    You want here anybody in or near Liverpool who is not a scouser. Manchs are the same if they support United.
    You are a Brummy if your adenoids are blocked.
    Want mention Norwich, or the whole of east Kent with their Men of Kent or Kentish men.
    Go cockneys .

  6. I was born at home in John Fisher Street E1 in 1951 well inside cockney land. It was just off Dock Street at the end of Cable Street. The Royal Mint and Tower of London were 5 minutes away from home.

    As a boy I grew up around the docks and played in bombed out buildings.

    Lots of memories good and even!

    For our overseas Rhyming Slang fans – a tip – when used in a conversation it is intended to be understood only by fellow cockneys and not those “non believers” in earshot. Therefore you only use the first word in the rhyme. So you would take a “butchers” at something – you wouldn’t say “butchers hook” (normally).

  7. My dad was born in Christmas street in 1929. Within the sound of bow bells. It dooexist any more bit I’d love to find out where it was if anyone knows

    1. The Mother`s Hospital was in the Lower Clapton road E5.. Pehaps we in “Ackney” were Eastenders but, we were just as good Cookneys as the Mileend buuch!

  8. I was eighty years old in February this year.
    So St Mary – le- Bow bells were ringing.
    I was born in Bethnal Green hospital E2., in 1938. The bells could be heard from there.
    My father his father and his father were born in either Bethnal Green or Bow.
    My mothers parents were born in Stepney..Her grandfather was born in Soho, you could hear the bells from there.
    So am I cockney.? Yes, but I,m not a stall holder, or wear pearl suits, neither do a drop my aitches. A cockney is more than where you were born, or speak. It’s about being just that bit different. Scousers , Manks etc all feel like that

  9. I was born in 1963 in the old Charing Cross Hospital that I believe was located on Agar Street, West Strand, WC2N 4JP (before it moved to its current location in 1973). Agar Street is 1.7 miles to the west of the sound of Bow Bells so should I assume I’m a cockney? I’ve always thought I was but would love to know!

  10. My father John (Jack) Feacey and his father before him John Charles Feacey had a family butchers shop at 76 Dale Road E16. This was from about 1920s through to late 1970s when the shop was compulsory purchased and the are was developed. Does anyone remember the shop and my family?

  11. Although Im a South Londoner (wrongly referred to as a cockney in some quarters) my paternal great grand parents were from Shoreditch and Hackney, definitely East Londoners but were they cockneys?

  12. My Dad and his family were true cockneys and I was born in Queen Charlotte hospital in London but I am proud to be part of a cockney family and most people do take me for one because of how I talk. After living in New Zealand for the last 43 years I still sound the same.

  13. My Grandfather was born the east end in 1888, a true cockney, However, my Father was born in Kennington in1910 and claims you could hear bow bell then as their was no traffic at that time

    1. I can believe that. I can remember as a kid in the mid ’70s hearing the guns of the salute on remembrance Sunday, we lived in Ilford. There was no traffic and no sound at 11am on the 11th.

      So in 1910 it would have been quiet at times too!

  14. My mother in law claims to be a cockney she was born in portabello rd in royal borough of chelsea and Westminster in May 1950. Could someone please let me know if shes a wannabe as my father seems to think she is

    1. I was born in the Golborne ( Top of Portobello Road ) Lived in West London 30 Years & then East London but in No way am I a Cockney – Londoner Yes Cockney No Way – If your Mother in law could hear Bow Bells from W10 she’s pretty amazing – Cockney No Mockney Maybe

    2. hi i was born in chelsea in may 1950 and i am not a cockney londoner yes but not a cockney,also 1n 1950 the royal borough of chelsea and westminster did not exsist it was the metropolitan borough of chelsea 3rd smallest borough.

  15. i was born in peckham and my mum came from east end and i miss it all is there any bar in pattaya thailand I COULD MEET UP AND RINGH OUT THE BARRELS

  16. I am 67. Born in Westland Place Shoreditch 1949. Very proud to be a true Cockney. Now live in Nottingham but have very fond memories of life in Tsplow Street and school in Hoxton Square.
    I have to laugh when Essex folk talk of being Cockneys but proud they see it as a status. !!!
    Not many of us left !😄

    1. any of us in nottingham jim,im now in essex and there aint none here they like to think they are cockneys but these people aint got a clue i tell community spirit what ever,no one speaks to you unless they have to,like oi what you looking at f,,, face,no mate,life out of london is finished,and londons finished,might join you up there mate..

  17. the bells were silent from 1940 to 1961. so anyone born within that period are not true ‘Cockneys’ as they could not have heard the bells.

    1. Sorry you translate it that way. On that basis only people born at 9 o’clock were ever Cockneys then.
      The reality was being born within the sound of Bow bells not that they were ringing at the time.
      Anyway I trust you are a Cockney so Respect to you.

      1. Thanks. I was born within the sound but before the bells were replaced in late 61. Hopefully I can still consider myself a true Cockney.

          1. This is not strictly true as many Cockney dads used to play a 1926 BBC recording of the Bow Bells when their kids were born during the 1950s. Alfie Shine’s pawnshop on the Globe Road was one of the places that used to hire out the old reel-to-reel tape recorders.

      1. The bells ringing at the time of a birth. Rather the reference is a generic term meaning that if they could be heard to ring during the time of a birth then the person is considered a Cockney. As mentioned, the bells could not and did not ring between 1940 and 196i as they were down. You obviously understand but just want your 15 minutes to play the Devli’s advocate.
        ‘nuf sed.

  18. Cockneys were born within the sound of bow bells, bow bells is in cheapside the same bells that said turn again dick Whittington Lord mayor of London. The bells are called the bells of st Mary let bow, not bow bells in bow, so cockneys originated in the city of london
    This information can be found in the city livery halls I and around the city of London

  19. Cockneys were born within the sound of bow bells, bow bells is in eastcheap the same bells that said turn again dick Whittington Lord mare of London. The bells are called the bells of st Mary let bow, not bow bells in bow, so cockneys originated in the city of london
    This information can be found in the city livery halls I and around the city of London

    1. The actual address is 1, Bow Lane which is on Cheapside

      St Mary-le-Bow
      Historic Church
      St Mary-le-Bow
      St Mary-le-Bow is a historic church rebuilt after the Great Fire of 1666 by Sir Christopher Wren in the City of London on the main east–west thoroughfare, Cheapside. According to tradition a true Cockney must be born within earshot of the sound of Bow Bells.

  20. I am an 87 year old British American. Only this year did I discover that both my parents were Cockneys. They never mentioned this, nor did they speak the lingo. I, on the other hand, enjoy mimicking quite a few dialects. All the best of swan and duck to you . . . Terry

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